Experts in human security have long realized the complex nature of activities like human smuggling, human trafficking, slavery, economic migration, asylum-seeking, and the global illicit sex trade. Individual migrants who leave their home countries for economic opportunities elsewhere may find themselves both voluntarily paying smugglers and involuntarily paying bribes and ransoms before they reach their destinations. Others will never arrive, and will instead endure long periods of forced labor or subjugation to sex traffickers. Some will see their families divided among transnational criminal networks that exploit vulnerable migrants.

Content related to Mixed Migration